More information about Japan is available on the Japan Page and from other Department of State publications and other sources listed at the end of this fact sheet. The U. The Alliance is based on shared vital interests and values, including: Japan provides bases as well as financial and material support to U. In January the United States and Japan signed a new five-year package of host nation support for U. In December , the United States returned a major portion of the Northern Training Area, nearly 10, acres, reducing the amount of land utilized by the United States on Okinawa by close to 20 percent. Howard Chiang is assistant professor of history at the University of California, Davis. He is the author of After Eunuchs: Histories of Power and Pleasure Todd A. Aug 16, - As a transgender woman, my relationship with online dating is There have also been many documented cases of trans women being hurt. Aug 1, - Until recently, scholars of Asia have tended to approach questions of .. technology mediates the relationship between trans self-fashioning.
There were no transgender groups or communities in Hong Kong until after the turn of the century. Today they are still known as a "sexual minority" in China. Because Chinese transgender studies is увидеть больше unfocused, a wide variety of terms are used in relation to transgender in the varieties of Chinese. The most common is jan-jiu which translates to "human monster". Terms for crossdressing are many and varied.
Trump to Asia: Unite on North Korea, but Go It Alone on Trade
Howard Chiang is assistant professor of history at I have a trans asian relations University of California, Davis.
He is the больше информации of After Eunuchs: Histories of Power and Pleasure Todd A. Henry is associate professor of history at the University of California, San Diego. He is also the editor of and a contributor I have a trans asian relations Queer Korea forthcoming.
She is the author of Undercurrents: A Queer Film Classic Howard Chiang, Todd A. An Introduction. TSQ 1 August ; 5 3: This special I have a trans asian relations originated in the concerns of three members of TSQ' s editorial board.
We were troubled that the various intellectual fields in which we operate do not adequately speak to one another and that bridging dialogues were necessary to foreground a host of marginalized and unnamed subjects.
They also intersect with the various concerns and approaches of our respective and overlapping disciplines, which include history, anthropology, science, I have a trans asian relations, literature, film, mass media, and cultural studies.
In the call for papers, we expressed our excitement that, over the past two decades, scholars and нажмите чтобы узнать больше have begun to examine long-standing histories and the politically engaged nature of trans cultures across the diverse societies of Asia e.
We recognized, however, that such work remains at the margins of Asian studies, rather than receiving the spotlight. By contrast, we propose to take seriously the empirical and theoretical insights to be gained from focusing on nonnormative bodies and their embodiments. If one source of discomfort derived from an unwillingness of Asian studies to adequately consider critiques of area studies that partly operate by minimizing trans and queer perspectives, another dissatisfaction driving this special issue centered on how discussions of nonnormative embodiments have teen neahalf loves getting fucked cock to reference the West.
To be sure, the aforementioned surge of intellectual and activist work on the politics of посетить страницу источник embodiment in various Asian locales was accelerated by the transnational circulation of trans vocabularies after the s.
Indeed, this framework clearly allowed some committed scholars and confrontational advocates to visualize and mobilize marginalized bodies as the focus of their critiques.
However, we also recognize that these manifestations of trans-in-Asia must be considered in much more complex terms than what diffusionist accounts of globalization might suggest.
Much of this groundbreaking work has, in fact, cautioned against I have a trans asian relations assumptions about the universality of transgender experiences. It also heeds the significant influence of colonial histories, cultural imperialism, Cold War dynamics, economic integration, and migration practices in shaping local categories of queerness, discourses of rights, as well as the political, social, and medical management of gender variance and nonnormative sexualities Chiang and Wong ; Henry, forthcoming.
These challenging but important meditations about transnational circulation and global citationality lie at the heart of the essays that follow. To this end, critics have begun to illuminate the historical, linguistic, and cultural complexities of gendered selfhoods, embodiments, and practices in glocalized contexts.
The authors who responded to our call to interface Asian and trans studies did so in diverse ways. In our estimation, their essays represent the exciting promise of this new field as geopolitically critical, intellectually expansive, and inter disciplinarily audacious.
Until recently, scholars of Asia have tended to approach questions of society and culture in isomorphic and holistic ways. Imbibing the tenets of Cold War area studies, they have often assumed читать больше stability and continuity of culture areas and their diverse populations, rather than conceiving them as held together in tenuous ways and through struggles that have privileged the interests of majority populations e.
Rather, several authors approach this pillar of our intellectual project as a critical force that highlights how scholars have amalgamated spaces, cultures, communities, and bodies into units of analysis that enhance the visibility and welfare of majority populations, often against that of marginalized others.
For their part, other authors direct this destabilizing and decentering critique toward the second anchor of our collective pursuit—that is, Asia-in-trans. As they demonstrate, http://mirandamustgo.info/transsexual-enjoying-doggystyle.php focus on minor traditions of nonnormative embodiment, particularly ones anchored outside or on the margins of the West, expose how conceptualizations and narratives of trans tend to ossify North America, Western Europe, and other powerful centers.
By contrast, they demonstrate a wider range of formulations in the non-West and global South, ones that generally have not made their way into the mainstream of scholarship, including TSQ.
They also reveal that these other expressions of trans, while at times borrowing from and exhibiting some of the same characteristics as West-centered formulations, do not always rely on well-known logics of public visibility or those espousing antinormative politics as their modus operandi.
In this diverse and wider world, Southeast Asia figures as a surprisingly dense node of trans expression and activity, exposing a wide variety of stories and understudied contexts. Even within a given region in the place we are provisionally calling Asia, we also witness how certain nation-states and cultural communities can dominate, subordinating other localities of trans activity in the process.
As a result, the nonnormative life histories of these lesser known subjects, only some of which are captured in this special issue, have become doubly marginalized. On the broadest register, the essays that follow question uniform, consistent, and holistic understandings of trans, especially those that have come to privilege Western-centric geographies and other powerful metropoles that have similarly exerted their centrifugal forces of homogenization, subordination, and erasure.
They also problematize conceptualizations of nonnormative bodies that have tended to associate the origins and trajectories of trans with the rise of a modernity driven by imperial expansion and capitalist exploitation.
Perhaps the most enduring legacy of Eurocentric logos used ¿ narrate these complex histories revolves around binaries, which have powerfully separated humanity into putative groups across a wide range of spatial scales. Although commonly premised on religious, empirical, and even scientific criteria, these practices of division have often advanced processes of human and environmental or inhuman domination Luciano and Chen Slavery, imperialism, and genocide as well as androcentrism, heteronormativity, and gender conformism are but some of its most violent by-products.
In response, deconstruction, postcolonial critiques, critical race theory, disability studies, and related strands of poststructuralist thinking have problematized the destructive effects of these binary frameworks.
Taking into consideration the historical significance of the partitioning of British India, Hossain's study deploys a regionally sensitive approach in order to supplant a national frame defined around Indian hegemony. Part of the problem with the growing literature on queer South Asia, Hossain suggests, lies in the power dynamics that makes invisible other regions such as Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, and Bhutan. His ethnographic fieldwork in Bangladesh shows, for example, that many hijras in Dhaka can at once embody the life of a heterosexual masculine husband and that of a transgender hijra.
This approach differs from existing work that tends to locate Indian hijras outside the social zones of procreative kinship and heteronormativity. In fact, many hijras travel across the Indian-Bangladesh border without a visa. As such, transregional movement not only exceeds familiar cartographical boundaries but also attests to the ways in which hijras from different regional communities unite in one imagined nation within the nations.
Hossain's study demonstrates that as we pluralize our understanding of hijras, the queering of South Asia necessitates the mutual troubling of Western-centrism and Indian hegemony. The porousness of regional definition is again made evident through the malleability and mobility of trans concepts. The essays by Horim Yi and Timothy Gitzen and by Benjamin Hegarty analyze the varied and contested place of trans selves in developmental regimes and historical dictatorships across East and Southeast Asia.
As background to their ethnographic and critical inquiries, they explain how Cold War governments in South Korea and Indonesia took a remarkably deep interest in marking, policing, and managing gender and sexual boundaries of non normativity. Worked out in a complex dialogue with military officials, medical doctors, and media professionals, these definitions set but did not determine the social parameters for such important processes as capitalist accumulation, national defense, and cultural conformity.
Although focused on different experiences of such boundary-marking processes, these authors demonstrate how trans subjects were caught up in nation-building processes that disproportionately exposed them to media scrutiny, medical inspection, and economic privation. To varying degrees, trans subjects could also find support from like-minded people, with whom they associated to create subcultural communities or organized in the creation of solidarity. In the case of Indonesia, Hegarty explores the historical significance of wariaindividuals whose situated practices of male femininity brought them into visibility and censure as well as struggle and glamour during the s.
Set against the backdrop of Suharto's New Order —98his interdisciplinary essay combines archival documents, oral histories, and photographic images to explore the changing relationship between gender presentation and understandings of the self. To be sure, this dynamic era witnessed fiery denunciations of transgressive male bodies that crossed culturally accepted boundaries of embodiment, leading to instances of public denunciation and everyday violence.
Hegarty also documents how, ironically, binary definitions of bodies created a considerably malleable stage onto which waria entered as social actors and historical agents. Redirecting discussions of trans practices away from an understanding of self that mirrors external markers and vice versahe explores the life history of Tadi, whose glamorous practices of female embodiment on- and offstage transformed her into a waria.
Through her own words and photographs as well as media accounts about her, Hegarty unpacks how Tadi and other waria managed to achieve female gender presentations.
Even as Hegarty understands the temporary but daily performances of male femininity as a function of structural conditions and national terms of development, he demonstrates how Tadi redirected them toward individual pursuits of self-cultivation and avowed rites of communal recognition. He also explains the complex role of the mass media and other forms of public visibility, which waria used to claim cultural citizenship and national belonging.
Tadi's own photographs, some of which Hegarty has included, function as an archival index of how stigmatizing technologies of mechanical reproduction were reoriented toward presenting узнать больше as upstanding, productive, and modern in Indonesia's New Order.
If Hegarty's essay focuses on the ways in which waria managed to fashion a glamorous and dignified position within and against Indonesia's developmentalist order, Yi and Gitzen's discussion of the South Korean military demonstrates how this powerful institution severely limited the life choices of trans subjects, subjecting them to normalizing forms of violence that separated their bodies from their embodied sense of selves.
In a manner similar to Suharto's imposition of the New Order, Park Chung Hee laid the foundations for capitalist growth in South Korea during the s and s. Meanwhile, state-led policies of rapid industrialization were closely tied to Cold War imperatives, including the defense of this anticommunist nation against its North Korean neighbor. Analyzing the current weight of this ongoing history, Yi and Gitzen illustrate how South Korea's formula of militarized modernity impinges on variant bodies who, like their cisgender counterparts, were mobilized to promote state directives.
Despite the recent efforts of queer activists, they continue to face considerable challenges to ensure their bodily and mental health in the context of conscription. Yi and Gitzen poignantly recount how young transwomen are burdened with the difficult task of fulfilling the military's I have a trans asian relations categories of anatomical binarism to gain an exemption, often by hurriedly removing their testicles.
Or, if they cannot meet these medical standards in time for service or, for whatever reason, desire to serve in the military before further transitioning, they must do so with a body that the armed forces and most of South Korean society still considers less valuable to its highly gendered system of national defense and cultural citizenship.
Even transmen who have legally changed their sex can perform military service but do so in a capacity that marks them as lower ranking than their biological male counterparts.
Young transpeople in South Korea thus reveal how a binary взято отсюда of gender that developed in the harsh context of the Cold War continues to produce the ironic effect of establishing a hierarchy of soldiering bodies, not all of which count in the same capacity.
Prathna Lor's and Robert Diaz's essays both reconceptualize trans as a framework for interpreting cinematic representations while offering two very different critical approaches.
Lor's elegant essay unravels a Lacanian reading of the daydream in renowned Thai filmmaker Apichatpong Weerasethakul's film Cemetery of Splendor Diaz's essay examines two recent films from the Philippines: Out Runa documentary that follows Ladlad LGBT Party 's unsuccessful congressional bid during the election, and Die Beautifula I have a trans asian relations about the trials and tribulations of a trans beauty queen.
Diaz shows how kabaklaan has continued to manifest across different generational and class contexts, in both harmful and empowering ways. Through an intersectional examination of how queer and trans subjects in the films navigate the politics of respectability, the essay suggests that the quotidian performance of kabaklaan can turn seemingly trivial or frivolous spaces into sites как сообщается здесь creative resistance and solidarity in times of personal, political, and economic trauma.
As mentioned earlier, nonbinary neologisms have emerged in recent years to bring to light heretofore marginalized or unnamed subjects in the antifoundational politics of the trans continuum. Even as these efforts have created a more hospitable living space for those who do not comfortably identify with one of these two I have a trans asian relations, they have not necessarily dismantled the binary logic out of which such transgressive expressions emerged.
For example, invocations of nonbinaryas the term discloses, holds on to the originary dichotomy as I have a trans asian relations primary referent. By contrast, the essay by Zairong Xiang proffers an even more radical response to the historic legacy of binaries. An earlier variant of this debate surfaced in Jay Prosser's materialist critique of Judith Butler's work. Xiang picks up this debate from Gayle Salamon, who advocates the rhetorical productivity of psychoanalytic concepts as a way of ameliorating this debate.
As such, this transing demands an understanding of trans experience as either loaded with corporeal-materialist significance and saturated with the discursive operations of language. Thus staying below—rather than beyond—the binary oppositions liberates us from a one-sided theoretical totality, while simultaneously forcing us to attend to the power dynamics of their interrelation. In this way, Xiang's essay shatters the intellectual hegemony of Western theory that tends to assign Asian texts and contexts to a secondary order of importance; instead, Asia serves as the origin of a theory proper that can potentially reorient the intellectual premise of Western poststructuralist empiricism.
In addition to full-length research articles, this special issue features shorter position papers to represent the diversity of practices and problematics in trans scholarship and activism. To unpack the materialist ontology of trans photographic modeling, Zubillaga-Pow focuses on the corporeal presentation, fashion sensibility, and attitude toward posing of transwomen in Singapore.
Drawing on oral history and visual analysis, Zubillaga-Pow argues I have a trans asian relations such a materialist ontology is best delineated by comparing two historic turning points in the city-state's rapidly evolving political economy, the s and the s. Posing in front of the camera represents a voluntary technique employed by transwomen to situate their diverse expressions of queer embodiment as Singapore's political and economic climates shifted from the Cold War to the neoliberal era.
This conference report provides a rare and valuable understanding of how trans is being worked out as an activist practice. The first nationwide conference of its kind, the summit brought together activists and advocates working in different parts of China.
Although only twenty-one participants attended the summit, they constitute the key leaders doing transgender activist and advocacy work in contemporary China.
Their views represent the diversity of problems faced by different regional transgender communities. The conference highlighted the urgent need to reform trans-specific health-care and legal issues.
These issues include concerns about the mental health of transpeople and their lack of adequate knowledge about body modification practices.