Mid-to-late stage dementia often presents challenging behavior problems. Although it can be hard to understand why people with dementia act the way they do, the explanation is attributable to their disease and the changes it causes in the brain. Aggression is usually triggered by something—often physical discomfort, environmental factors such as being in an unfamiliar situation, or even poor communication. She could be perfectly fine one moment, and the next she was yelling and getting physical. Often, it remained a mystery as to what prompted the outburst. For her caregivers, it was often getting dressed or bathing that provoked aggression. The key to responding to aggression caused by dementia is to try to identify the cause—what is the person feeling to make them behave aggressively? Postmodernism is a broad movement that developed in the mid- to late 20th century across philosophy , the arts , architecture , and criticism and that marked a departure from modernism. While encompassing a wide variety of approaches, postmodernism is generally defined by an attitude of skepticism , irony , or rejection toward the meta-narratives and ideologies of modernism, often calling into question various assumptions of Enlightenment rationality. Postmodern critical approaches gained purchase in the s and s, and have been adopted in a variety of academic and theoretical disciplines, including cultural studies , philosophy of science , economics , linguistics , architecture , feminist theory , and literary criticism , as well as art movements in fields such as literature and music. Postmodernism arose after World War II as a reaction to the perceived failings of modernism, whose radical artistic projects had come to be associated with totalitarianism  or had been assimilated into mainstream culture. The basic features of what is now called postmodernism can be found as early as the s, most notably in the work of artists such as Jorge Luis Borges. Salient features of postmodernism are normally thought to include the ironic play with styles, citations and narrative levels,  a metaphysical skepticism or nihilism towards a " grand narrative " of Western culture,  a preference for the virtual at the expense of the Real or more accurately, a fundamental questioning of what 'the real' constitutes  and a "waning of affect"  on the part of the subject, who is caught up in the free interplay of virtual, endlessly reproducible signs inducing a state of consciousness similar to schizophrenia. XVIDEOS TS Carolina is Simply Perfection free. Oh Wow She is One Hung Tranny. 61 minTrannies-are-great - k views -. p. Travesti gostosa fodendo Oh Wow She is One Hung · Very Pretty TS Spreads Her · Trannies-are-great. Nicole, Young Shemale With Monster Cock and Big Tits, live on mirandamustgo.info 11 min - , hits. Insanely Hot Shemale Teenager. 6 min - , hits -.
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Postmodernism is a broad movement that developed in the mid- to late 20th century across philosophy , the arts , architecture , and criticism and that marked a departure from modernism. While encompassing a wide variety of approaches, postmodernism is generally defined by an attitude of skepticism , irony , or rejection toward the meta-narratives and ideologies of modernism, often calling into question various assumptions of Enlightenment rationality.
Postmodern critical approaches gained purchase in the s and s, and have been adopted in a variety of academic and theoretical disciplines, including cultural studies , philosophy of science , economics , linguistics , architecture , feminist theory , and literary criticism , as well as art movements in fields such as literature and music.
Postmodernism arose after World War II as a reaction to the perceived failings of modernism, whose radical artistic projects had come to be associated with totalitarianism  or had been assimilated into mainstream culture.
The basic features of what is now called postmodernism can be found as early as the s, most notably in the work of artists such as Jorge Luis Borges. Salient features of postmodernism are normally thought to include the ironic play with styles, citations and narrative levels,  a metaphysical skepticism or nihilism towards a " grand narrative " of Western culture,  a preference for the virtual at the expense of the Real or more accurately, a fundamental questioning of what 'the real' constitutes  and a "waning of affect"  on the part of the subject, who is caught up in the free interplay of virtual, endlessly reproducible signs inducing a state of consciousness similar to schizophrenia.
Since the late s there has been a small but growing feeling both in popular culture and in academia that postmodernism "has gone out of fashion". Structuralism was a philosophical movement developed by French academics in the s, partly in response to French Existentialism.
It has been seen variously as an expression of Modernism , High modernism , or postmodernism. Many American academics consider post-structuralism to be part of the broader, less well-defined postmodernist movement, even though many post-structuralists insisted it was not. The early writings of the psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan and the literary theorist Roland Barthes have also been called structuralists. Post-structuralism is not defined by a set of shared axioms or methodologies, but by an emphasis on how various aspects of a particular culture, from its most ordinary, everyday material details to its most abstract theories and beliefs, determine one another.
Post-structuralist thinkers reject Reductionism and Epiphenomenalism and the idea that cause-and-effect relationships are top-down or bottom-up. Like structuralists, they start from the assumption that people's identities, values and economic conditions determine each other rather than having intrinsic properties that can be understood in isolation.
But they nevertheless tended to explore how the subjects of their study might be described, reductively, as a set of essential relationships, schematics, or mathematical symbols. Post-structuralists thinkers went further, questioning the existence of any distinction between the nature of a thing and its relationship to other things. These developments—re-evaluation of the entire Western value system love , marriage , popular culture , shift from industrial to service economy that took place since the s and s, with a peak in the Social Revolution of —are described with the term " postmodernity ",  as opposed to Postmodernism , a term referring to an opinion or movement.
Post-structuralism resulted similarly to postmodernism by following a time of structuralism. It is characterized by new ways of thinking through structuralism, contrary to the original form.
One of the most well-known postmodernist concerns is "deconstruction," a theory for philosophy, literary criticism, and textual analysis developed by Jacques Derrida. The notion of a "deconstructive" approach implies an analysis that questions the already evident understanding of a text in terms of presuppositions, implied hierarchical values among its central terms, and frames of reference.
A deconstructive approach further depends on the techniques of "close reading" the associative import of specific elements of the text: A deconstructionist approach does not elevate speculations about any non-iterated "intention" of the author over these contexts. Critics have insisted that Derrida's work is rooted in a statement found in Of Grammatology: Such critics misinterpret the statement as denying any reality outside of books.
The statement is actually part of a critique of "inside" and "outside" metaphors when referring to text, and is corollary to the observation that there is no "inside" of a text as well.
Derrida's philosophy inspired a postmodern movement called deconstructivism among architects, characterized by design that rejects structural "centers" and encourages decentralized play among its elements. Derrida discontinued his involvement with the movement after the publication of his collaborative project with architect Peter Eisenman in Chora L Works: Jacques Derrida and Peter Eisenman.
The connection between postmodernism, posthumanism, and cyborgism has led to a challenge of postmodernism, for which the terms "postpostmodernism" and "postpoststructuralism" were first coined in In some sense, we may regard postmodernism, posthumanism, poststructuralism, etc. Deconference was an exploration in post-cyborgism i. To understand this transition from 'pomo' cyborgism to 'popo' postcyborgism we must first understand the cyborg era itself. More recently metamodernism , post-postmodernism and the "death of postmodernism" have been widely debated: A small group of critics has put forth a range of theories that aim to describe culture or society in the alleged aftermath of postmodernism, most notably Raoul Eshelman performatism , Gilles Lipovetsky hypermodernity , Nicolas Bourriaud altermodern , and Alan Kirby digimodernism, formerly called pseudo-modernism.
None of these new theories and labels have so far gained very widespread acceptance. The term postmodern was first used around the s. John Watkins Chapman suggested "a Postmodern style of painting" as a way to depart from French Impressionism.
Thompson, in his article in The Hibbert Journal a quarterly philosophical review , used it to describe changes in attitudes and beliefs in the critique of religion , writing: In and , postmodernism had been used to describe new forms of art and music. In H. Hays described it as a new literary form. However, as a general theory for a historical movement it was first used in by Arnold J.
In the term was used to describe a dissatisfaction with modern architecture , and led to the postmodern architecture movement,  and a response to the modernist architectural movement known as the International Style. Postmodernism in architecture was initially marked by a re-emergence of surface ornament, reference to surrounding buildings in urban settings, historical reference in decorative forms eclecticism , and non-orthogonal angles.
Peter Drucker suggested the transformation into a post-modern world happened between and when he was writing. He described an as yet "nameless era" which he characterized as a shift to conceptual world based on pattern, purpose, and process rather than mechanical cause, outlined by four new realities: In , in a lecture delivered at the Institute of Contemporary Art, London, Mel Bochner described "post-modernism" in art as having started with Jasper Johns, "who first rejected sense-data and the singular point-of-view as the basis for his art, and treated art as a critical investigation".
Martin Heidegger rejected the philosophical basis of the concepts of "subjectivity" and "objectivity" and asserted that similar grounding oppositions in logic ultimately refer to one another. Instead of resisting the admission of this paradox in the search for understanding, Heidegger requires that we embrace it through an active process of elucidation he called the " hermeneutic circle ". He stressed the historicity and cultural construction of concepts while simultaneously advocating the necessity of an atemporal and immanent apprehension of them.
In this vein, he asserted that it was the task of contemporary philosophy to recover the original question of or "openness to" Dasein translated as Being or Being-there present in the pre-Socratic philosophers but normalized, neutered, and standardized since Plato.
This was to be done, in part, by tracing the record of Dasein's sublimation or forgetfulness through the history of philosophy which meant that we were to ask again what constituted the grounding conditions in ourselves and in the World for the affinity between beings and between the many usages of the term "being" in philosophy. To do this, however, a non-historical and, to a degree, self-referential engagement with whatever set of ideas, feelings or practices would permit both the non-fixed concept and reality of such a continuity was required—a continuity permitting the possible experience, possible existence indeed not only of beings but of all differences as they appeared and tended to develop.
Such a conclusion led Heidegger to depart from the phenomenology of his teacher Husserl and prompt instead an ironically anachronistic return to the yet-unasked questions of ontology , a return that in general did not acknowledge an intrinsic distinction between phenomena and noumena or between things in themselves de re and things as they appear see qualia: Being-in-the-world, or rather, the openness to the process of Dasein' s becoming was to bridge the age-old gap between these two.
In this latter premise, Heidegger shares an affinity with the late Romantic philosopher, Friedrich Nietzsche , another principal forerunner of post-structuralist and postmodernist thought. Jacques Derrida re-examined the fundamentals of writing and its consequences on philosophy in general; sought to undermine the language of "presence" or metaphysics in an analytical technique which, beginning as a point of departure from Heidegger's notion of Destruktion , came to be known as Deconstruction.
Michel Foucault introduced concepts such as ' discursive regime ', or re-invoked those of older philosophers like ' episteme ' and ' genealogy ' in order to explain the relationship between meaning, power, and social behavior within social orders see The Order of Things , The Archaeology of Knowledge , Discipline and Punish , and The History of Sexuality.
In direct contradiction to what have been typified as modernist perspectives on epistemology , Foucault asserted that rational judgment, social practice, and what he called " biopower " are not only inseparable but co-determinant. Instead, Foucault focused on the ways in which such constructs can foster cultural hegemony , violence, and exclusion.
Foucault was known for his controversial aphorisms, such as "language is oppression" [ citation needed ] , meaning that language functions in such a way as to render nonsensical, false, or silent tendencies that might otherwise threaten or undermine the distributions of power backing a society's conventions—even when such distributions purport to celebrate liberation and expression or value minority groups and perspectives.
His writings have had a major influence on the larger body of postmodern academic literature. This crisis, insofar as it pertains to academia, concerns both the motivations and justification procedures for making research claims: As formal conjecture about real-world issues becomes inextricably linked to automated calculation, information storage, and retrieval, such knowledge becomes increasingly "exteriorised" from its knowers in the form of information.
Knowledge thus becomes materialized and made into a commodity exchanged between producers and consumers; it ceases to be either an idealistic end-in-itself or a tool capable of bringing about liberty or social benefit; it is stripped of its humanistic and spiritual associations, its connection with education, teaching, and human development, being simply rendered as "data"—omnipresent, material, unending, and without any contexts or pre-requisites.
The value-premises upholding academic research have been maintained by what Lyotard considers to be quasi-mythological beliefs about human purpose, human reason, and human progress—large, background constructs he calls " metanarratives ". These metanarratives still remain in Western society but are now being undermined by rapid Informatization and the commercialization of the university and its functions.
The shift of authority from the presence and intuition of knowers—from the good faith of reason to seek diverse knowledge integrated for human benefit or truth fidelity—to the automated database and the market had, in Lyotard's view, the power to unravel the very idea of "justification" or "legitimation" and, with it, the rationale for research altogether, especially in disciplines pertaining to human life, society, and meaning.
We are now controlled not by binding extra-linguistic value paradigms defining notions of collective identity and ultimate purpose, but rather by our automatic responses to different species of "language games" a concept Lyotard imports from J. Austin 's theory of speech acts. Richard Rorty argues in Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature that contemporary analytic philosophy mistakenly imitates scientific methods. In addition, he denounces the traditional epistemological perspectives of representationalism and correspondence theory that rely upon the independence of knowers and observers from phenomena and the passivity of natural phenomena in relation to consciousness.
As a proponent of anti-foundationalism and anti-essentialism within a pragmatist framework, he echoes the postmodern strain of conventionalism and relativism , but opposes much of postmodern thinking with his commitment to social liberalism.
Jean Baudrillard , in Simulacra and Simulation , introduced the concept that reality or the principle of " The Real " is short-circuited by the interchangeability of signs in an era whose communicative and semantic acts are dominated by electronic media and digital technologies. Baudrillard proposes the notion that, in such a state, where subjects are detached from the outcomes of events political, literary, artistic, personal, or otherwise , events no longer hold any particular sway on the subject nor have any identifiable context; they therefore have the effect of producing widespread indifference, detachment, and passivity in industrialized populations.
He claimed that a constant stream of appearances and references without any direct consequences to viewers or readers could eventually render the division between appearance and object indiscernible, resulting, ironically, in the "disappearance" of mankind in what is, in effect, a virtual or holographic state, composed only of appearances.
For Baudrillard, "simulation is no longer that of a territory, a referential being or a substance. It is the generation by models of a real without origin or a reality: Fredric Jameson set forth one of the first expansive theoretical treatments of postmodernism as a historical period, intellectual trend, and social phenomenon in a series of lectures at the Whitney Museum , later expanded as Postmodernism, or The Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism Eclectic in his methodology, Jameson has continued a sustained examination of the role that periodization continues to play as a grounding assumption of critical methodologies in humanities disciplines.
He has contributed extensive effort to explicating the importance of concepts of Utopia and Utopianism as driving forces in the cultural and intellectual movements of modernity , and outlining the political and existential uncertainties that may result from the decline or suspension of this trend in the theorized state of postmodernity.
Like Susan Sontag , Jameson served to introduce a wide audience of American readers to key figures of the 20th-century continental European intellectual left, particularly those associated with the Frankfurt School , structuralism , and post-structuralism.
Thus, his importance as a "translator" of their ideas to the common vocabularies of a variety of disciplines in the Anglo-American academic complex is equally as important as his own critical engagement with them.
In Analysis of the Journey , a journal birthed from postmodernism, Douglas Kellner insists that the "assumptions and procedures of modern theory" must be forgotten. His terms defined in the depth of postmodernism are based on advancement, innovation, and adaptation.
Extensively, Kellner analyzes the terms of this theory in real-life experiences and examples. Kellner used science and technology studies as a major part of his analysis; he urged that the theory is incomplete without it. The scale was larger than just postmodernism alone; it must be interpreted through cultural studies where science and technology studies play a huge role.
The reality of the September 11 attacks on the United States of America is the catalyst for his explanation. This catalyst is used as a great representation due to the mere fact of the planned ambush and destruction of "symbols of globalization", insinuating the World Trade Center. One of the numerous yet appropriate definitions of postmodernism and the qualm aspect aids this attribute to seem perfectly accurate.
He questions if the attacks are only able to be understood in a limited form of postmodern theory due to the level of irony. Similar to the act of September 11 and the symbols that were interpreted through this postmodern ideal, he continues to even describe this as " semiotic systems " that people use to make sense of their lives and the events that occur in them.
Kellner's adamancy that signs are necessary to understand one's culture is what he analyzes from the evidence that most cultures have used signs in place of existence. He finds strength in theorist Baudrillard and his idea of Marxism. Kellner acknowledges Marxism's end and lack of importance to his theory. The conclusion he depicts is simple: The idea of Postmodernism in architecture began as a response to the perceived blandness and failed Utopianism of the Modern movement.